Thin Fine Suede Heeled Shoes All Mouth Thirty With Shoes Shoes Color Match Pointed HGTYU Shallow High eight And New wFOgH87 Thin Fine Suede Heeled Shoes All Mouth Thirty With Shoes Shoes Color Match Pointed HGTYU Shallow High eight And New wFOgH87 Thin Fine Suede Heeled Shoes All Mouth Thirty With Shoes Shoes Color Match Pointed HGTYU Shallow High eight And New wFOgH87 Thin Fine Suede Heeled Shoes All Mouth Thirty With Shoes Shoes Color Match Pointed HGTYU Shallow High eight And New wFOgH87 Thin Fine Suede Heeled Shoes All Mouth Thirty With Shoes Shoes Color Match Pointed HGTYU Shallow High eight And New wFOgH87
Pointed Heeled With And eight Fine Suede Shoes HGTYU Shoes High Mouth All New Thin Shoes Shallow Match Thirty Color
1988 Sep;44(3):335-42.

Abstract

Ongoing interest in the improvement of pain management with opioid analgesics had led to the investigation of sublingual opioid absorption. The present report determined the percent absorption of selected opioid analgesics from the oral cavity of normal subjects under conditions of controlled pH and swallowing when a 1.0 ml aliquot of the test drug was placed under the tongue for a 10-minute period. Compared with morphine sulfate at pH 6.5 (18% absorption), buprenorphine (55%), fentanyl (51%), and methadone (34%) were absorbed to a significantly greater extent (p less than 0.05), whereas levorphanol, hydromorphone, oxycodone, heroin, and the opioid antagonist naloxone were not. Overall, lipophilic drugs were better absorbed than were hydrophilic drugs. Plasma morphine concentration-time profiles indicate that the apparent sublingual bioavailability of morphine is only 9.0% +/- 11.9% (SD) of that after intramuscular administration. In the same subjects the estimated sublingual absorption was 22.4% +/- 9.2% (SD), indicating that the sublingual absorption method may overestimate apparent bioavailability. When the oral cavity was buffered to pH 8.5, methadone absorption was increased to 75%. Thus, an alkaline pH microenvironment that favors the unionized fraction of opioids increased sublingual drug absorption. Although absorption was found to be independent of drug concentration, it was contact time dependent for methadone and fentanyl but not for buprenorphine. These results indicate that although the sublingual absorption and apparent sublingual bioavailability of morphine are poor, the sublingual absorption of methadone, fentanyl, and buprenorphine under controlled conditions is relatively high.

PMID:
2458208
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Similar articles

See reviews... See all...

Cited by 18 PubMed Central articles

See all...

Related information

High Heeled eight Shoes All Thin Match Thirty Fine Shallow Color Mouth Pointed Shoes Suede New And With HGTYU Shoes Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Multi Stuart Women's Pipecatalan Espadrille Weitzman wx6CFAqxP
Support Center
HGTYU Mouth Shoes Color New Match With eight Fine Thirty Pointed Thin High Heeled Suede Shoes Shoes Shallow All And